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关于RHEL or Centos 6.3 sysctl 一个错误问题的解决

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在RHEL6.3中执行sysctl -p的时候发现输出出现以下错误

# sysctl -p
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0
net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1
net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0
kernel.sysrq = 0
kernel.core_uses_pid = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
error: "net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables" is an unknown key
error: "net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables" is an unknown key
error: "net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-arptables" is an unknown key
kernel.msgmnb = 65536
kernel.msgmax = 65536
kernel.shmmax = 68719476736
kernel.shmall = 4294967296

经过Google大神点击打开链接后来找到的了原因所在,原来以下3个参数依赖于bridge模块,该模块如果没有加载则会现上面的输出错误

error: "net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables" is an unknown key
error: "net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables" is an unknown key
error: "net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-arptables" is an unknown key

加载模块测试,发现问题解决

# modprobe bridge
# sysctl -p
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0
net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1
net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0
kernel.sysrq = 0
kernel.core_uses_pid = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 0
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 0
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-arptables = 0
kernel.msgmnb = 65536
kernel.msgmax = 65536
kernel.shmmax = 68719476736
kernel.shmall = 4294967296

有人可能会好奇这三个值得意义所在,我在红帽官网找到了相关说明点击打开链接

以下大致的意思主要说使用以上3个选项阻止桥接流量获得通过主机iptables规则,Netfilter是默认情况下启用了桥梁,如果不阻止会导致严重的混乱

 

netfilter is currently enabled on bridges by default. This means, for example, that IP packets that are forwarded across the bridge are filtered by the iptables FORWARD rules.

In practice, this can lead to serious confusion where someone creates a bridge and finds that some traffic isn't being forwarded across the bridge. Because it's so unexpected that IP firewall rules apply to frames on a bridge, it can take quite some time to figure out what's going on.

The libvirt wiki has this advice:

  <a href="http://wiki.libvirt.org/page/Networking#Fedora.2FRHEL_Bridging">http://wiki.libvirt.org/page/Networking#Fedora.2FRHEL_Bridging</a>

  The final step is to configure iptables to allow all traffic to be forwarded
  across the bridge

  # echo "-I FORWARD -m physdev --physdev-is-bridged -j ACCEPT" &gt; 
       /etc/sysconfig/iptables-forward-bridged
  # lokkit --custom-rules=ipv4:filter:/etc/sysconfig/iptables-forward-bridged
  # service libvirtd reload

  Alternatively, you can prevent bridged traffic getting pushed through the
  host's iptables rules. In /etc/sysctl.conf add

  # cat &gt;&gt; /etc/sysctl.conf &lt;&lt;EOF
  net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 0
  net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 0
  net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-arptables = 0
  EOF
  # sysctl -p /etc/sysctl.conf

It sucks that people have to do this, especially since it's a very rare user who would be using iptables on a bridge for something useful.

I posted a patch to netdev which would have allowed us to disable it by default in our kernel builds:

  <a href="http://patchwork.ozlabs.org/patch/29319/">http://patchwork.ozlabs.org/patch/29319/</a>

The conclusion seems to be an agreement that distros should disable this, but using sysctl.conf instead

In the thread Herbert describes a security issue with the current default:

  I still think the risk with bridging is higher, especially
  in the presence of virtualisation.  Consider the scenario where you
  have to VMs on the one host, each with a dedicated bridge with the
  intention that neither should know anything about the other's
  traffic.

  With conntrack running as part of bridging, the traffic can now
  cross over which is a serious security hole.

and goes on to say:

  FWIW I don't really care what we have as the default for bridge
  netfilter.  I just want to make sure that people who do have
  bridge netfilter (and in particular, conntrack + bridge) active
  on their machines are aware of the security implications.  Otherwise
  we'd be negligent.

  As you said distros can change the default regardless of what
  the kernel does.

In summary, I think we should add the following to sysctl.conf:

  net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 0
  net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 0
  net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-arptables = 0

 

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